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THE CATO INSTITUTE ON HEALTH CARE REFORM

Sandra Bland- 28 years old, July 13, Texas.

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Sandra Bland was assaulted and hit before being taken to a holding cell where she was found dead and hanging by her neck. She had filled out intake forms at the jail that indicated that she had contemplated suicide before. She was placed in a cell without a suicide watch or a medical evaluation and was provided the means for allegedly hanging herself. Sofia Salva- Pregnant Sudanese immigrant on February 5, was stopped for speeding while on her way to the hospital for a medical emergency involving the pregnancy, she was at first denied medical help by the police officers who subjected her to taunts and ridicule.

When they finally released her to go the hospital the baby miscarried. Death from heart attack from the shock of a flash grenade exploding in her home. Kathryn Johnson- 92 years old, November Atlanta. Police planted false narcotics evidence in her home to cover over the fact that that had attacked the wrong address. The police told the news media that they thought that the house was an arsenal of guns, drugs, and attack dogs. Was shot five times and handcuffed as she lay dying with no attempt to tend to her wounds or call for immediate medical help.

Police planted false narcotics evidence in her home to cover over the fact that they had attacked the wrong address. Cause of death from two police shotgun blasts while serving eviction orders; Extra-Judicial Punishment, Arbitrary Killing, and Summary Execution. Kathryn Johnson- 92 years old, November , shot five times, handcuffed as she lay dying with no medical treatment while police planted false narcotics evidence in her home; Torture, Summary Execution. Jefferson County, Georgia shot multiple times after being falsely accused of shoplifting, Arbitrary Killing, Summary Execution.

Shelly Frey- 27 years old, Texas, December 6, shot twice in the neck by police, Arbitrary Punishment killing. Summary Execution. Mental patient was killed from chest compression after police dog piled on top of her. When she quit breathing police officers would not perform a mouth to mouth procedure due to their homophobia. Her body was stripped nude and carried out uncovered properly and exposed for witnesses to see. The manner of death makes this a case of torture because it is a cruel and unusual punishment.

See the Eight Amendment to the U. Tanisha Anderson- 37 years old November 13, Cleveland, Ohio Mental patient died from chest compression after police beat her they lay on top of her under she quit moving. Anderson was killed by the same police man involved in killing Malissa Williams and Timothy Russell.


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The officer involved shooting of 13 year- old Tamir Rice was performed by a police officer who also had been terminated for misconduct in previous employment with at least one other police department. The mayor of Cleveland was alarmed when he visited a Cleveland police station and found that the walls of the locker room and lavatory were filled with racist grafftti against Black people. Alesia Thomas- 22 years old July 22,, Los Angeles, CA was beaten and kicked in the groin seven times by a female police officer. When a person is unarmed, handcuffed, with their bound feet how much more command and control is really necessary?

Beating a woman thus bound is cowardly, cruel, and unusual. Kayla Moore- 41 years old, February 13, , Berkeley. She died while fully restrained. Alesia Thomas years old, July 22, Renette Turner- 42 years old, July , Mt. Vernon, NY. Makiah Jackson- 3 years old, June , Detroit, Michigan, died after being struck by a car being pursued by police at high speeds. She was playing in front of her home with her 6 year- old bother who was also struck and killed. Both children were dragged by the car as the police continued the chase that ended with four more people being critically injured.

Arbitrary Killing. Zyaire Gardener- 7 years old, June , Detroit, Michigan, survived critical injuries with two other children after being hit by a car being pursued by police at high speeds for a parole violation; Arbitrary Punishment. Lakendra Hill- 22 years old, June , Detroit, Michigan, survived critical injuries after being hit by a car being pursued in a high speed chase on a residential street.

Three children critically injured two children dead. Police were pursuing the suspect for a parole violation; Arbitrary Punishment. Kathryn Johnson- 92 years old, November Ms. Johnson was shot five times and handcuffed as she was dying. Police officers delayed medical treatment while they planted false narcotics evidence to cover up the fact that they had attacked the wrong address. She pleaded to be allowed to go to the hospital and was taunted and ridiculed by the police officers.

She miscarried the baby after she was released to go to the hospital,. Schizophrenic mental patient was killed by police who were originally called to help deal with a medical emergency involving Kayla. She was handcuffed, wrestled face down onto a futon, had her feet bound, her head was covered with a spit-hood, her legs were further secured in a WRAP restraint device, five to six police dogpiled on top of her.

After she lost consciousness and stopped breathing their homophobia toward Kayla kept them from applying mouth to mouth resuscitation. Geneva Convention- June defines the rights and protections of unarmed non-combatant civilians in a war zone, and the creation of special provisions to prevent assaults on civilian women and children that are not a part of hostilities. Torture Victims Protection Act 28 U. University, Mississippi, one of two students shot dead by police, Mississippi National Guard that day, 12 more wounded during student protest demonstration.

Phillip Lafayette Gibbs, 21 years old, May 14, , Jackson State University, Mississippi, one of two students killed that day, 12 more wounded during student protest demonstration. Michael Stewart, 19 years old, September 28, , New York Police caused death from beating and choking him with a night stick for graffiti vandalism. Wadie Suttles, 66 years old, November, , Chattanooga, Tenn. Left unconscious in cell, denied medical treatment, died in hospital; Arbitrary Detention, Torture, Extra Judicial Killing. Died in police custody after being shot, beaten, and stomped by a mob of angry NOLA cops, 13 hours in custody without medical attention, cracked skull, crushed larynx, shattered face; Arbitrary Punishment, Extra judicial Killing, Torture.

Malice Green- 36 years old, November 3, , Detroit, Michigan, beaten in the head with a police flashlight, caused seizures and death; Arbitrary punishment, Arbitrary Killing, Extra Judicial Punishment, Torture. Gino Thompson- 40 years old, April 16, , Philadelphia, Pa. Abner Louima, 30 years old, August , New York, NY, Haitian immigrant survived police beating and sodomy with a broken broom stick handle; left bleeding from rectum in holding cell without getting immediate medical attention; Arbitrary Detention, Extra Judicial Punishment, Torture.

Franklin Reid, 19 years old, , New Milford, Conn. Charles Beatty, 66 Years old, June , Los Angeles, CA, Retired Aerospace worker survived after being shot in the back four times, a bullet still lodged in his back rendered him disabled; Arbitrary detention, Arbitrary punishment, Extra Judicial Punishment. Roger Owensby Jr- 29 years old, November 7, , Cincinnati, Ohio Death in the back of a police car after being handcuffed, beaten, sprayed with a chemical agent; Extra Judicial Punishment, Torture, Arbitrary killing.

Timothy Thomas, 19 years old, April 7, , Cincinnati, Ohio shot at close range by a Cincinnati police officer after a foot chase when they tried to arrest him for seatbelt and traffic violations; Arbitrary killing, Extra Judicial Punishment, Summary Execution. The dog was given immediate medical treatment and taken away on a medical emergency helicopter while Brunson bled to death and received no medical attention. Nathaniel Jones, 41 years old, November 3, , Cincinnati, Ohio died after being refused medical attention, beaten to death with aluminum nightstick; Arbitrary Punishment, Extra Judicial Punishment, Torture.

Timothy Stansberry Jr. Dondi Johnson Sr. Raymond Robair, 48 years old, August 1, New Orleans, LA, Died from a beating at the hands of New Orleans police officers that fractured his ribs, lacerated his liver, and punctured his spleen; taken to hospital by police who did not inform staff that they had just beat him into an unconscious state. Jaymichael Mitchell, 24 years old, August 16, Portsmouth, Virginia Mental patient died in police custody after three months for stealing a candy bar, soda, and a sandwich; Starved , malnourished lost significant amount of weight 65lbs before death.

Arbitrary detention, Extra Judicial Punishment, Torture. Police put him in a car while he was possibly still alive and set the car on fire to hide evidence Arbitrary Killing, Arbitrary Punishment, Torture, Summary Execution. His mother was not allowed into emergency room when he died and did not to see his body for six days.

Oscar Grant, 22 years, January 1, , Oakland California BART Police, Assaulted and falsely detained Oscar Grant, and shot him dead in the back as three officers were on top of him while he was being handcuffed; handcuffed after he was shot with no medical attention given. Marshawn Pitts- 15 years old, October 7, Dolton, Illinois, patient at a school for children with special needs survived police assault after being punched in the face repeatedly, slammed against a wall, face held to the floor to prevent breathing, broken nose; Arbitrary Punishment, Extra Judicial Punishment, Torture.

Children and Armed Conflict: The International Response

Ronnie Holloway- 49 years old, May 29, schizophrenic man on medication was beaten with fists and with a police nightstick, arrested because he did not zip up his hooded sweatshirt when ordered to by the cop. Henry- 20 years old, October 18, , New York, Pace University football player shot dead by a policeman in his moving car for a traffic violation. Derrick Williams years old, July , Milwaukee, WI Death from beating and delayed medical attention for his injuries.

Travis McNeil- 28 years old, February , Miami, Florida was shot and killed by a police officer working for a Federal task force after a traffic stop. DOJ Dept. Alonzo Ashley, 29 years old, October 21, Denver, Colo.

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Kenneth Chamberlain, 68 years old, November 19, , New York, disabled senior citizen and retired Marine Corps Veteran, Harassed and called racial epithets by police, Tasered and shot by police who busted into his home. Manuel Loggins,31 years old, February 7, , California Death from police gunfire after car accident, killed in front of his two children who were in the car outside the school they attended.

His minor children were taken away by the police and interrogated for thirteen hours without their mother or legal representation present. Dante Price, 25 years old, March 1, , Dayton, Ohio Death from three police bullet wounds after being shot at 17 times. Nehemiah Dillard, 29 years old, March 5, , Florida Died at the hands of police after being beaten, Tasered, injected with medications, and going into cardiac arrest.

Ashley A. Overbey, 27 years old, April 30, , Baltimore, MD. Chavis Carter, 21 years old, July 29, Jonesboro, Arkansas, Death while handcuffed in the back of a police car, single bullet wound in head to temple for outstanding warrant and marijuana possession. One police man stood on the hood of the car and fired over forty shots into it after the others had stopped shooting.

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McKenzie Cochran, 25 years old, January 28, , Southfield Michigan, was killed during struggle with shopping mall security guards by chest compression asphyxia, They ignored his complaints that he could not breath. Michael Brown, 18 years old, August 9, , Ferguson, MO, shoplifting suspect fatally shot by policeman for Jay walking on a small residential street.

Replacing Obamacare: The Cato Institute on Healthcare Reform

California is an open firearms carry state in White rural areas. Charles Smith- 29 years old, September , Savannah, Georgia, Shot in the head and back while handcuffed police planted a gun under his body. Rumain Brisbon, 30 years old December 9, , Phoenix, Arizona shot by a police officer for holding pill bottle in hand. Matthew Ajibade, 22 years old, January 1, , Savannah, Georgia, Nigerian college student on medication for bi-polar disorder beaten and Tasered on Genitals, killed while strapped to a restraint chair. Jamychael Mitchell, 24 years old, August 16, , Virginia, starvation death of mental patient in police custody for three months for stealing a candy bar, soda, and a sandwich.

He lost 65lbs. Michael Tyree, 31 years old, August 26, , Santa Clara, CA, Mental patient died from injuries suffered while in police custody, blunt force trauma, bled to death internally. Arbitrary Detentions, Extra Judicial Punishments, and Killngs UnArmed men and Boys of african Descent: demographics, pre-existing health conditions, manner of injury, Causes of death, etc. Shot trying to evacuate during Hurricane Katrina. Darrin Manning- Straight A high School student, Philadelphia, PA testicle ruptured by female police officer during body search…survived. Angela Williams years old, August 5, , Beavercreek Ohio, Cardiovascular disease, ventricular dysrhythmia, hypertension Death.

Depression, Schizophrenia, Bi-polar, diminished mental capacity; Death. Her eight month old fetus died after Delois was shot by police in a phony drug raid; survived. She was refused medical attention and the baby miscarried living for only one minute while Sofia survived. Gary King- 20 years old, , Oakland, CA mistaken for a suspect, beaten, Tasered, shot in the back while running away. Coby Chavis-Father of Donovan Jackson July 11, , was beaten for trying to protect his son from police brutality. Kathryn Johnson years old, November , Atlanta, Georgia police planted cocaine and marijuana in her home.

Charles Smith- 29 years old, September , shot in head and back while handcuffed, police put gun under his body. Police lied about being dragged by car. Calvin Sanders years old , Philadelphia, PA pistol whipped by police, survived rough ride with paralysis, rendered quadriplegic. Sprayed with chemical agent, Death by suffocation. Al Hixon PhD. Kamilah Brock years old, September , New York NY she survived false arrest and detention in a mental facility where she was drugged stripped of her underwear and interrogated under medication for three days because police did not believe that a Black woman could legally own a BMW.

Alesia Thomas- Age 35, California, kicked, beaten, while bound hand and foot; death in police car. The dog was given immediate medical attention and taken away on an emergency medical helicopter while Brunson bled to death and received no medical attention. Charles Smith- 29 years old, September , Savannah, Georgia, shot in head and back while handcuffed. Death from police chokehold for selling untaxed cigarettes.

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Survived being beaten by policemen and sodomized with broom handle. Strip searched, beaten, fingers poked into rectum, eye damage, survived. Darrin Manning- Straight A high school student, athlete, Philadelphia, PA Underwent surgery because a female police officer ruptured his testicle during a search after she stopped him and teammates following a basketball game. During the rough search he heard a pop. Doctors said that the rupture may have caused fertility issues for the boy in the future…Survived. Everette Howard- 18 years old, , Cincinnati, OH college student shocked in chest on heart, cardiac arrest.

Jonathan Ferrell- 24 years old, September, Charlotte North Carolina, stun gun used on him before he was shot ten times…Death. Mathew Ajibade- 22 years old, , Harrison County, Mississippi Tasered on genitals, strapped to restraint chair, beaten, Death. Bernard Bailey- 58 years old, Eutawville, South Carolina former police chief shot him three times,. Marvin Booker years old, July, , Denver, Colorado homeless street preacher beaten to death.

Darrin Rainey- 50 years old, June 23, , Florida, Beaten and Scalded to death in shower converted to hot water torture chamber. Charles Beatty- 66 years old, LAPD shot in him the back 4 times and he survived with disability. Darius Andrews-3 years old, June , Detroit, MI survived being critically injured with two other children and an adult after being hit by an out of control car that was chased at high speeds after being bumped by police, Arbitrary Punishment.

Isaiah Williams- 5 years old, June , Detroit, MI survived being critically injured with two other children and an adult after being hit by an out of control car that was being chased by police for a parole violation Arbitrary Punishment. Lakendra Hill- 22 years old, June , Detroit, MI Survived being critically injured with three small children after being hit by an out of control car that was being chased and bumped by police at high speeds on a small residential street for a parole violation. Roper v. Simmons U. Graham v. Florida U. The Supreme Court ruled that sentencing juvenile offenders to life without the possibility of parole is unconstitutional; likened life without parole for juveniles to the death penalty; sentencing authorities are required to consider the characteristics of a defendant and the details of his offense before sentencing him to death.

See also Woodson v. North Carolina, U. Miller v. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of the citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Human Rights- U. Article All members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in cooperation with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article UDHR Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. UDHR Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status….

UDHR Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. UDHR Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of punishment. UDHR Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

UDHR Article 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. UDHR Article Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed….

Article 1- The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed in a time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent and to punish. Article 2 — In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group as such:.

Article 4- Persons committing genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in Article 3 shall be punished, whether they are constitutionally responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals. Article 5- The Contracting Parties undertake to enact, in accordance with their respective Constitutions, the necessary legislation to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention and, in particular to provide effective penalties for persons guilty of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in Article 3.

Article 6- Persons charged with genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in Article 3 shall be tried by a competent tribunal of the State in the territory of which the act was committed, or by such international penal tribunal with respect to those contracting Parties which shall have accepted its jurisdiction.

Title 18 , United States Code, is amended by inserting after chapter 50 the following:. International Law and U. Clinton the White House December 10, Section 2 Covers responsibility of executive departments and agencies and maintenance of current awareness of U. Section 3 Covers human rights violation inquiries and complaints and requests for information and agency responsibility.

Section 4 Establishes an interagency working group on Human rights treaties; reporting functions and responsibilities; report preparation process; Education of agency personnel of human rights obligations; promotion of effective remedies and recommendations. Senate advice and consent: Cong. S June 24, deposited with the U. S: November Daniel A. Buford, The Objector March, McNamara L. Department of Justice. Dave Grossman, Little Brown, and Company. Judge Claudia H. Morcom ret. Buford and Judge Claudia H. Panel takes U. Klapper, Associated Press Writer, July, 28, Chin Vol.

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